The Definitive List of Peptides

This is a comprehensive list of the most popular Peptides in use today. Here you’ll learn what each Peptide type is and what it does.

If you are new to the world of Peptides, you may be wondering about the best way to use a particular compound. You’ll find that here.

You’ll find the full scope of benefits of each Peptide listed here when you click through to the full review of that supplement.

The full review includes exactly what the Peptide compound is, where it comes from, why it’s used as a supplement, how it works in your body, recommended dosages, side effects, and possible drug interactions, and the best form or Peptide type to buy for best results.

The list of Peptides is in alphabetical order. To quickly go to that listing, just click on the name in the Table of Contents below.

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (Acth)

Corticotropin is a 39 amino acid peptide synthesized as part of a large, 241-amino acid precursor molecule, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). It is a tropic hormone produced by the anterior pituitary. The hypothalamic-pituitary axis controls it. ACTH regulates cortisol and androgen production. Stress, both physical and psychological, also stimulates adrenocorticotropic hormone production and hence increases cortisol levels. Cortisol plays an important role in helping you to: Respond to stress.

Diseases associated with ACTH include Addison disease, Cushing syndrome, and Cushing disease. Too little adrenocorticotropic hormone could lead to a poorly functioning adrenal gland due to insufficient production of cortisol. Symptoms include weight loss, lack of appetite (anorexia), muscle weakness, nausea and vomiting, and low blood pressure (hypotension).

If ACTH levels are normal or high, the cause is probably a pituitary or ectopic tumor. An ACTH test measures the levels of both ACTH and cortisol in the blood and helps your doctor detect diseases that are associated with too much or too little cortisol in the body. Possible causes of these diseases include:

  • A pituitary or adrenal malfunction
  • A pituitary tumor
  • An adrenal tumor
  • A lung tumor

ACTH is used to treat a certain type of seizure in children (infantile spasms) and is also used to treat conditions such as multiple sclerosis, arthritis, lupus, eye conditions, skin/kidney/lung diseases, and immune system disorders.


Amylin is a 37-amino-acid peptide hormone that is co-secreted with insulin by the pancreatic beta-cells in response to a nutrient stimulus. It is deficient in patients with Type 1 diabetes and elevated in patients in the early stages of Type 2 diabetes, a condition that is characterized by hyperinsulinaemia. Amylin inhibits food intake, delays gastric emptying, and decreases blood glucose levels, leading to the reduction of body weight. Therefore, amylin, as well as insulin, play important roles in controlling the level of blood glucose.

Human amylin exhibits physicochemical properties predisposing the peptide hormone to aggregate and form amyloid fibers, which may play a part in β-cell destruction in type 2 diabetes. This obviously makes it unsuitable for pharmacological use. A stable analog, pramlintide, which has actions and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties similar to the native peptide, has been developed.

Angiotensin II

Angiotensin is a peptide endocrine hormone and an important part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. It is a vasoconstrictor indicated for increasing blood pressure in adults with septic or other distributive shock.

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (Anp)

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a cardiac hormone that regulates salt-water balance and blood pressure by promoting renal sodium and water excretion and stimulating vasodilation. ANP also has an anti-hypertrophic function in the heart, which is independent of its systemic blood pressure-lowering effect.

Under high blood volume and pressure, heart muscle cells release ANP into the circulation. In the kidney, ANP enhances salt and water excretion. In the blood vessel, ANP promotes vasodilation. As such, ANP acts as a cardiac hormone to regulate blood volume and pressure. Defects in the ANP pathway now are known to contribute to major diseases such as hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (HF). More recently, ANP and related peptides have been implicated in lipid metabolism and metabolic disease.

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), especially low-dose ANP, is beneficial in acute kidney injury (AKI).


Growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRPs) could be widely used by athletes because they produce growth hormone (GH) secretion, so may generate an ergogenic effect in the body.

The heptapeptide Alexamorelin is a member of the Growth Hormone secretagogues (GHS) family. These are synthetic molecules which act through the central nervous system to stimulate the secretion of somatotrophs, prolactin, adrenocorticotrophin and cortisol. Alexamorelin has also been shown to inhibit 125I-Tyr-Ala-HEX binding in tissues. Due to their stimulation of growth hormone release, they are known as non-approved pharmaceuticals and are a concern to sport’s drug testing organisations.


This medication is used to prevent minor skin infections caused by small cuts, scrapes, or burns. Bacitracin works by stopping the growth of certain bacteria. It belongs to a class of drugs known as antibiotics. This antibiotic only prevents bacterial infections. It will not work for virus or fungus infections. Unnecessary use or overuse of any antibiotic can lead to its decreased effectiveness.

Bacitracin may cause serious side effects such as hives, difficulty breathing, swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat, and severe dizziness.


Boceprevir is a potent, orally administered ketoamide inhibitor that targets the active site of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural (NS) 3 protease. The addition of boceprevir to peginterferon plus ribavirin resulted in higher rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) than for peginterferon plus ribavirin alone in phase III studies in both previously treated and untreated patients with HCV infection.


BPC-157 is a peptide that helps alleviate joint pain, improve joint mobility, and boost recovery from injuries. It also increases vascular flow to the tendons and ligaments to increase healing and can also help aid skin burns heal faster and increase blood flow to damaged tissues. BPC 157 increases growth hormone receptors. It promotes the outgrowth of tendon fibroblasts, cell survival under stress, and the migration of tendon fibroblasts.

Although the research is ongoing and ever-changing, there have been no reported side effects. However, it is recommended you talk to your physician to determine whether a peptide injection or oral dose can interact with any prescription medications you take.


Bradykinin (BK) (Greek brady-, slow; -kinin, kīn(eîn) to move) is a peptide that promotes inflammation. It causes arterioles to dilate (enlarge) via the release of prostacyclinnitric oxide, and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor and makes veins constrict, via prostaglandin F2, thereby leading to leakage into capillary beds, due to the increased pressure in the capillaries. Bradykinin is a physiologically and pharmacologically active peptide of the kinin group of proteins, consisting of nine amino acids.

A class of drugs called angiotensin-converting (ACE inhibitors) increase bradykinin levels by inhibiting its degradation, thereby increasing its blood pressure-lowering effect. ACE inhibitors are FDA approved for the treatment of hypertension and heart failure.


Bremelanotide, is a medication used to treat low sexual desire in women. Specifically, it is used for the low sexual desire which occurs before menopause and is not due to medical problems, psychiatric problems, or problems within the relationship. It is given by an injection just under the skin of the thigh or abdomen.


Calcitonin is a hormone that your thyroid gland makes and releases to help regulate calcium levels in your blood by decreasing it. Calcitonin opposes the actions of the parathyroid hormone, which is a hormone that increases your blood calcium levels.

Your thyroid releases calcitonin based on the level of calcium in your blood. When your blood calcium levels increase, your thyroid releases calcitonin in higher quantities. When blood calcium levels decrease, your thyroid decreases the amount of calcitonin it releases.


Carnosine is a protein building block that is naturally produced in the body. It is found in muscles, the heart, brain, and many other parts of the body. Carnosine is important for many normal body functions. There's interest in using it to prevent aging because it seems to block certain chemicals that might play a role in the aging process. Carnosine levels in the body might also go down with age.


Cholecystokinin is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. Cholecystokinin, officially called pancreozymin, is synthesized and secreted by enteroendocrine cells in the duodenum, the first segment of the small intestine. Its presence causes the release of digestive enzymes and bile from the pancreas and gallbladder, respectively, and also acts as a hunger suppressant. CCK plays important physiological roles both as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system and as a peptide hormone in the gut. It participates in a number of processes such as digestion, satiety, and anxiety.

Cholecystokinin makes the gallbladder contract (squeeze together). It also makes the pancreas produce enzymes, which are some of the juices needed for the digestion of food. In addition, cholecystokinin increases the movements or contractions of the stomach and intestines. The doses of cholecystokinin will be different for different patients and depend on the weight of the patient and on the type of test.

Diseases resulting from excessive or deficient secretion of cholecystokinin are rare. Cholecystokinin deficiency has been described in humans as part of an autoimmune polyglandular syndrome and was manifested as a malabsorption syndrome clinically similar to pancreatic exocrine insufficiency.


Creatine is a natural substance that turns into creatine phosphate in the body. Creatine phosphate helps make a substance called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP provides the energy for muscle contractions. About 95% of creatine is stored in the skeletal muscle of your body and is used during physical activity. Creatine helps to maintain a continuous supply of energy to working muscles by keep production up in working muscles. Small amounts are also found in your heart, brain and other tissues.

Creatine is an amino acid located mostly in your body's muscles as well as in the brain. Most people get creatine through seafood and red meat — though at levels far below those found in synthetically made creatine supplements. The body's liver, pancreas and kidneys also can make about 1 gram of creatine per day.

Its intake is distinguished into two phases - loading and maintenance. The first one is aimed at the maximum possible increase in the amount of creatine stored in muscles, and the second one at maintaining this concentration at a stable, high level.

Cjc 1295/Ipamorelin

CJC 1295/Ipamorelin is a combination of 2 peptides. It is a Growth Hormone releasing hormone that stimulates one side of the pituitary gland. It does this in order to produce growth hormones. Ipamorelin mimics the ghrelin and binds to the ghrelin receptor in the pituitary gland in the brain. Thus, it also acts on the pituitary gland in order to produce growth hormones. These two peptides combine to act together in order to increase HGH (human growth hormone) produced in the body.

It is a synthetically produced peptide, and was originally made to treat diseases, but has been discovered to have performance-enhancing effects that appeal to athletes. The peptide works by increasing protein synthesis and insulin-like growth factor levels. This process enables muscle tissue to grow, thereby increasing muscle mass and function.


Collagen is a protein responsible for healthy joints and skin elasticity, or stretchiness. It's in your bones, muscles, and blood, comprising three-quarters of your skin and a third of the protein in your body. Collagen is found in connective tissue, skin, tendon, bone, and cartilage and has many functions. It’s also present in some foods, and you can take it as a supplement. As you age, your existing collagen breaks down, and it gets harder for your body to produce more Age-related collagen loss is unavoidable, but dietary and lifestyle factors such as smoking and excessive alcohol intake can speed up this process.


Acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections (ABSSSIs) are a subgroup of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and are a common source of morbidity in both the community and the hospital setting. Dalbavancin is a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide antibiotic, which was approved by both the FDA (May 2014) and the EMA (February 2015) for the treatment of ABSSSIs in adult patients [2,10–14]. This molecule was developed as an improved alternative to teicoplanin and vancomycin, which are iv anti-MRSA agents commonly used in hospitalized patients.


Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic derived from the organism Streptomyces roseosporus. Daptomycin is used to treat various bacterial infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE). It is used to treat complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI). It is also used to treat infections in the bloodstream (bacteremia), including right-sided infective endocarditis.

Daptomycin is associated with an increased incidence of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis. There have been cases reported in patients with and without acute renal failure. Daptomycin therapy is also associated with the development of eosinophilic pneumonia, which generally occurs 2 to 4 weeks after initiating therapy. Rare cases of peripheral neuropathy have been observed in patients receiving daptomycin. Therefore, monitoring for new-onset or worsening neuropathy is recommended.


Defensins are small cysteine-rich cationic proteins across cellular life, including vertebrate and invertebrate animals, plants, and fungi. They are host defense peptides, with members displaying either direct antimicrobial activity, immune signaling activities, or both. They are variously active against bacteria, fungi and many enveloped and nonenveloped viruses. They are typically 18-45 amino acids in length, with three or four highly conserved disulphide bonds.

Defensins are capable of killing bacteria or inhibiting bacterial growth through a multiplicity of antimicrobial mechanisms such as direct membrane disruption and inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Defensins can also reduce bacterial infection by neutralizing secreted toxins.

Defensins are antimicrobial peptides that exert immunomodulatory and chemotactic functions. Based on these properties and their high expression levels in the skin, they are likely to affect skin inflammation, infection, and wound healing. This may lead to therapeutic applications in (burn) wound healing.


Decorin, an archetypal small leucine-rich proteoglycan, possesses intrinsic and potent antitumorigenic capabilities. Initially characterized as an avid binding partner of collagen and an inherent regulator of fibrillogenesis, soluble decorin is now emerging as a pan-RTK inhibitor coincident with powerful downstream signaling attenuation. Because of its highly promiscuous and broad binding repertoire with extracellular matrix constituents, growth factors, and cell surface receptors, decorin can be considered a “guardian from the matrix.” Decorin functions as a guardian in the context of constraining the activity of multiple growth factors, receptor tyrosine kinases, and extracellular matrix components.

The source of decorin bioactivity lies within the unique attenuation of potent growth signals and cues that would otherwise facilitate malignant transformation. Furthermore, in most cases, these direct protein interactions act to ameliorate and counteract the overall tumorigenicity of the surrounding tumor microenvironment that would also otherwise foster and promote malignant transformation and tumor progression. Thus, decorin and perhaps other structurally related SLRPs act at a crossroad between inflammation and cancer, and could be determinant players in combatting many forms of solid tumors in which RTKs are deregulated


Elastin is an extracellular matrix protein that lends elasticity and resilience to tissues such as the arteries, lungs, tendons, skin, and ligaments. Elastic fibers have two components, one of which is encoded by the ELN gene. This protein has a high proportion of hydrophobic amino acids like glycine and proline, forming mobile hydrophobic domains. ELN is located on chromosome 7 of the human genome. Alternative splicing of the ELN gene results in the formation of at least 11 tropoelastin isoforms in humans. Elastin is synthesized from the precursor molecule tropoelastin. Many molecules of tropoelastin are linked together to form the larger elastin complex.

The ELN gene encodes a protein that is one of the two components of elastic fibers. The encoded protein is rich in hydrophobic amino acids such as glycine and proline, which form mobile hydrophobic regions bounded by crosslinks between lysine residues. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. Elastin's soluble precursor is tropoelastin. The characterization of disorder is consistent with an entropy-driven mechanism of elastic recoil. It is concluded that conformational disorder is a constitutive feature of elastin structure and function.

Deletions and mutations in this gene are associated with supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) and the autosomal dominant cutis laxa. Other associated defects in elastin include Marfan syndrome, emphysema caused by α1-antitrypsin deficiency, atherosclerosis, Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome, Menkes syndrome, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, and Williams syndrome.


Elafin is a human protein that is produced naturally in the skin, lung and breast, protecting the respective tissue from destruction by the immune system. Elafin’s ability to block the activity of destructive enzymes that are involved in inflammatory reactions makes it a highly promising active compound for the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases or severe reperfusion injuries occurring after heart attacks, serious injuries and organ transplantation.

Celiac disease is currently treated with a strict and life-long gluten-free diet which can be very challenging and expensive. Alternative therapies to this diet are being researched, such as drugs that target and eliminate gluten on its way through the digestive tract and compounds that strengthen the intestinal lining to prevent gluten from getting into the body. A recent study, published by The American Journal of Gastroenterology has uncovered a new potential method for treating celiac disease.

In humans, elafin is a protein found in the gastrointestinal tract that inhibits certain other proteins. It has previously been found to be less expressed in patients with inflammatory bowel disease but if this is also true in patients with celiac disease had not yet been established. Elafin is also a substrate for tissue transglutaminase (tTG), a protein known to be involved in the pathogenesis of celiac disease.


Endothelins are peptides with receptors and effects in many body organs. Endothelin constricts blood vessels and raises blood pressure. The endothelins are normally kept in balance by other mechanisms, but when overexpressed, they contribute to high blood pressure, heart disease, and potentially other diseases. Endothelins are the most potent vasoconstrictors known. In a healthy individual, a balance between vasoconstriction and vasodilation is maintained by endothelin and other vasoconstrictors on the one hand, and nitric oxide, prostacyclin, and other vasodilators on the other

Endothelins are 21-amino acid vasoconstricting peptides produced primarily in the endothelium having a key role in vascular homeostasis. Endothelins are implicated in vascular diseases of several organ systems, including the heart, lungs, kidneys, and brain. As of 2018, endothelins remain under extensive basic and clinical research to define their roles in several organ systems.

In the lungs, the endothelin system regulates the tone of airways and blood vessels, and it is involved in the development of pulmonary hypertension. In the kidney, it controls water and sodium excretion and acid-base balance, and it participates in acute and chronic renal failure.


Enfuvirtide is an HIV-1 gp41 fusion inhibitor used in patients experiencing HIV-1 replication who are already being treated with other antiretrovirals. It is used along with other medications to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It belongs to a class of medications called HIV entry and fusion inhibitors. It works by decreasing the amount of HIV in the blood.

Enfuvirtide is a 36 amino acid biomimetic peptide that is structurally similar to the HIV proteins that are responsible for the fusion of the virus to cell membranes and subsequent intracellular uptake. The first agent in the novel class of antiretroviral drugs called HIV fusion inhibitors, enfuvirtide works by inhibiting HIV-1 fusion with CD4 cells.


Enkephalin is a naturally occurring peptide that has potent painkilling effects and is released by neurons in the central nervous system and by cells in the adrenal medulla. Enkephalins are known as endogenous opioids and have powerful painkilling properties. The absence of pain in people who have sustained severe trauma is due to the rapid release and action of Enkephalins in response to the stressful stimulus of the injury.

Enkephalin is considered a neuropeptide, which in the human body performs as an important signaling molecule in the brain. Enkephalins are found in high concentration in the brain as well as in the cells of adrenal medulla. In response to pain, norepinephrine, a hormone that is activated in fight-or-flight response is released along with endorphins.

It has been shown that this polypeptide is linked to brain functioning during a stressful response, especially in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex regions. During a stress response, several Met-enkephalin analogs had increased activity in the hippocampus, while Leu-enkephalin analogs as well as somatostatins were downregulated during stress. This observation leads to a conclusion that stressors impact neuropeptides, and that their action is localized to a specific brain region.


Epithalon, is an Epithalamin synthetic version produced naturally in the body. The main use of Epithalon is to boost natural telomerase production in the body. Telomerase is an enzyme that occurs naturally and whose purpose is to protect the DNA. The peptide allows for DNA replication facilitating the growth of new cells through the rejuvenation of damaged or old cells.

It increases the rate of enzymatic activities by boosting the protein and sugar-digesting enzymes’ activities. It also corrects cardiac rhythm and boosts melatonin secretion. It may cure retinitis pigmentosa which is a genetic condition and affected individuals are reported to have poor retinal health. The peptide has the ability to prevent degeneration and preserve its structure.

Epithalon improves the antioxidant status in the body through secretion of melatonin (its production is stimulated by Epithalon) which is an active antioxidant. It has shown positive results when it comes to reducing the ageing process in humans.

Epidermal Growth Factor

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a protein that stimulates cell growth and differentiation by binding to its receptor, EGFR. Human EGF is 6-kDa and has 53 amino acid residues and three intramolecular disulfide bonds. EGF was originally described as a secreted peptide found in the submaxillary glands of mice and in human urine. EGF has since been found in many human tissues, including submandibular gland (submaxillary gland) and parotid gland. Initially, human EGF was known as urogastrone.

EGF, via binding to its cognate receptor, results in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Salivary EGF, which seems to be regulated by dietary inorganic iodine, also plays an important physiological role in the maintenance of oro-esophageal and gastric tissue integrity. The biological effects of salivary EGF include healing of oral and gastroesophageal ulcers, inhibition of gastric acid secretion, stimulation of DNA synthesis as well as mucosal protection from intraluminal injurious factors such as gastric acid, bile acids, pepsin, and trypsin and to physical, chemical and bacterial agents.

A normal eGFR is 60 or more. If your eGFR is less than 60 for three months or more, your kidneys may not be working well.


Fibronectin is a high-molecular weight (~500-~600 kDa) glycoprotein of the extracellular matrix that binds to membrane-spanning receptor proteins called integrins. Fibronectin also binds to other extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen, fibrin, and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (e.g. syndecans). It circulates adult males at a plasma concentra- tion of 300-350 pg/ml with lower levels observed in adult females. Serum levels are lower than plasma levels due to the binding of fibronectin to fibrin during clot formation.

Fibronectin plays a major role in cell adhesion, growth, migration, and differentiation, and it is important for processes such as wound healing and embryonic development. Fibronectin is an ECM glycoprotein that is involved in a number of cellular mechanisms important to wound healing, including cell growth and migration, and serves as a binding site for a number of growths factors1416. It promotes wound healing in vivo, and is protective against irradiation in vitro

Altered fibronectin expression, degradation, and organization has been associated with a number of pathologies, including cancer, arthritis, and fibrosis. Plasma Fibronectin deficiency is related to atherosclerosis susceptibility and leukemia, acute myeloid. Affiliated tissues include lung, myeloid and endothelial, and related phenotype is reduced circulating fibronectin level.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone

Follicle stimulating hormone is one of the hormones essential to pubertal development and the function of women's ovaries and men's testes. In women, this hormone stimulates the growth of ovarian follicles in the ovary before the release of an egg from one follicle at ovulation. It also increases oestradiol production.

                                            Normal FSH levels

Before puberty                          0–4 IU/L

During puberty                        0.3–10 IU/L

While still menstruating         4.7–21.5 IU/L

After menopause                    25.8–134.8 IU/L

If a female has an FSH level of 30 IU/L or higher and has not had a period for a year, they have probably reached menopause.

In women, a lack of follicle stimulating hormone leads to incomplete development at puberty and poor ovarian function (ovarian failure). In this situation ovarian follicles do not grow properly and do not release an egg, thus leading to infertility.

Symptoms of FSH deficiency and/or LH deficiency in adult assigned female at birth can include:

  • Loss of interest in sex (low sex drive).
  • Hot flashes.
  • Irregular periods or no menstrual periods (amenorrhea).
  • Decreased pubic hair.
  • Lack of breast milk production after giving birth.


Follistatin is also known as activin-binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FST gene. Follistatin is an autocrine glycoprotein that is expressed in nearly all tissues of higher animals. Its primary function is the binding and bioneutralization of members of the TGF-β superfamily, with a particular focus on activin, a paracrine hormone.

Follistatin has emerged as a powerful antagonist of myostatin that can increase muscle mass and strength. Follistatin increases in muscle tissue in response to muscle damage and plays a role in promoting cell growth throughout the body.


Gastrin is a hormone that is produced by ‘G’ cells in the lining of the stomach and upper small intestine and released into the blood circulation. During a meal, gastrin stimulates the stomach to release gastric acid (hydrochloric acid). Gastric acid is used to convert the inactive form of a protein digestive enzyme called pepsinogen into its active form pepsin. This allows the stomach to break down proteins swallowed as food and absorb certain vitamins such as vitamin B12. It Gastric acid also acts as a disinfectant and kills most of the bacteria and microorganisms that enter the stomach with food, minimizing the risk of infection within the gut.

Additionally, gastrin can stimulate the gallbladder to empty its store of bile and the pancreas to secrete enzymes. Bile and pancreatic enzymes help absorb food in the small intestine. Gastrin also stimulates growth of the stomach lining and increases the muscle contractions of the gut to aid digestion.

High gastrin levels may play a role in the development of certain cancers of the digestive tract such as gastric cancer while the low levels of gastric acid may increase the risk of infection within the gut and may limit the ability of the stomach to absorb nutrients.


Ghrelin is a hormone your stomach produces and releases. It signals your brain when your stomach is empty and it’s time to eat. Ghrelin levels increase between mealtimes and decrease when your stomach is full. Your stomach releases ghrelin when it’s empty or mostly empty. Ghrelin levels are typically highest right before mealtimes. People who have obesity often have low ghrelin levels and people who significantly restrict their calorie intake have high ghrelin levels.

Often known as the “hunger hormone,” ghrelin has numerous functions in addition to telling your brain you’re hungry. For example, ghrelin:

  • Increases food intake and helps your body store fat.
  • Helps trigger your pituitary gland to release growth hormones.
  • Plays a role in controlling sugars and how your body releases insulin, the hormone responsible for processing sugar.
  • Has a role in protecting your muscles from weakness and bone formation and metabolism.


GHK-Cu is a naturally occurring copper complex that was first identified in human plasma but has recently been found in multiple locations such as saliva and urine.

GHK-Cu has a variety of roles in the human body including promoting activation of wound healing, attracting immune cells, having antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, stimulating collagen and glycosaminoglycan synthesis in skin fibroblasts, and promoting blood vessel growth.

Evidence has shown that it acts as a feedback signal that is generated after tissue injury. It seems to act as a potent protector of tissue, and it is an anti-inflammatory agent that controls the oxidative damage that occurs after tissue injury. Further, it then plays a big role in signaling tissue remodeling which removes damaged/scarred tissue and generates new, healthy tissue.

These positive effects decline with age because the concentration of GHK-Cu in the body decreases with age.


Glutathione is a substance made from the amino acids glycine, cysteine, and glutamic acid. It is produced by the liver and involved in many body processes.

Glutathione is involved in tissue building and repair, making chemicals and proteins needed in the body, and in immune system function. People take glutathione for aging, alcohol use disorder, liver disease, heart disease, and many other conditions.

Glutathione helps with weight loss because it helps your body shift from fat production to muscle development. It also helps your body burn off fat cells, and it helps your liver remove toxins both of which lead to losing weight.


Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas. It raises the concentration of glucose and fatty acids in the bloodstream and is considered to be the main catabolic hormone of the body. It is also used as a medication to treat a number of health conditions. Its effect is opposite to that of insulin, which lowers extracellular glucose. It is produced from proglucagon, encoded by the GCG gene.

The pancreas releases glucagon when the amount of glucose in the bloodstream is too low. Glucagon causes the liver to engage in glycogenolysis: converting stored glycogen into glucose, which is released into the bloodstream. High blood-glucose levels, on the other hand, stimulate the release of insulin. Insulin allows glucose to be taken up and used by insulin-dependent tissues. Thus, glucagon and insulin are part of a feedback system that keeps blood glucose levels stable. Glucagon increases energy expenditure and is elevated under conditions of stress. Glucagon belongs to the secretin family of hormones.

In general, the normal range of glucagon levels in your blood is 50 to 100 picograms per milliliter (pg/mL). A picogram is one trillionth of a gram.

Growth Hormone (Somatotropin)

Growth hormone (GH), also called somatotropin or human growth hormone, peptide hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. It stimulates the growth of essentially all tissues of the body, including bone. GH is synthesized and secreted by anterior pituitary cells called somatotrophs, which release between one and two milligrams of the hormone each day. GH is vital for normal physical growth in children; its levels rise progressively during childhood and peak during the growth spurt that occurs in puberty.

Excess GH production is most often caused by a benign tumor (adenoma) of the somatotroph cells of the pituitary gland. In some cases, a tumor of the lung or of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans produces GHRH, which stimulates the somatotrophs to produce large amounts of GH. GH deficiency is one of the many causes of short stature and dwarfism. It results primarily from damage to the hypothalamus or to the pituitary gland during fetal development (congenital GH deficiency) or following birth (acquired GH deficiency). GH deficiency may also be caused by mutations in genes that regulate its synthesis and secretion.

Granulocyte- Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (Gm-Csf)

Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor is a growth factor that promotes the differentiation of granulocytes and macrophages, which are critically involved in the control of the host's defense to pathogenic microbes.

GM-CSF is a monomeric glycoprotein that functions as a cytokine. GM-CSF stimulates stem cells to produce granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) and monocytes. Monocytes exit the circulation and migrate into tissue, whereupon they mature into macrophages and dendritic cells. Thus, it is part of the immune/inflammatory cascade, by which activation of a small number of macrophages can rapidly lead to an increase in their numbers, a process crucial for fighting infection.

GM-CSF also has some effects on mature cells of the immune system. These include, for example, enhancing neutrophil migration and causing an alteration of the receptors expressed on the cells surface.

GM-CSF is found in high levels in joints with rheumatoid arthritis and blocking GM-CSF as a biological target may reduce the inflammation or damage. Some drugs (e.g. otilimab) are being developed to block GM-CSF. In critically ill patients GM-CSF has been trialled as a therapy for the immunosuppression of critical illness and has shown promise in restoring monocyte and neutrophil function.


Hepcidin is an iron-regulating peptide hormone made in the liver. It controls the delivery of iron to blood plasma from intestinal cells absorbing iron, from erythrocyte-recycling macrophages, and from iron-storing hepatocytes. Being a regulator of iron metabolism it inhibits iron transport by binding to the iron export channel ferroportin which is located in the basolateral plasma membrane of gut enterocytes and the plasma membrane of reticuloendothelial cells (macrophages), ultimately resulting in ferroportin breakdown in lysosomes. Inhibiting ferroportin prevents iron from being exported from the cell.

During conditions in which the hepcidin level is abnormally high, such as inflammation, serum iron falls due to iron trapping within macrophages and liver cells and decreased gut iron absorption. This typically leads to anemia due to an inadequate amount of serum iron being available for developing red blood cells. When the hepcidin level is abnormally low (such as in hemochromatosis) iron overload occurs due to increased ferroportin-mediated iron efflux from storage and increased gut iron absorption.


Hexarelin, a synthetic growth hormone-releasing peptide, can bind to and activate the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) in the brain similar to its natural analog ghrelin. It acts via specific receptors at both the pituitary and the hypothalamic level to stimulate GH release both in animals and in man. Like other GHRPs, HEX possesses also significant prolactin-and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) cortisol-releasing activity.

Hexarelin also has cardioprotective activity in common cardiovascular conditions such as cardiac fibrosis, ischemic heart disease, cardiac dysfunction, and atherosclerosis. These beneficial effects seem to be mediated through the direct binding and activation of its cardiac receptors CD36 and GHSR 1a. Since hexarelin is a chemically stable synthetic GHS with more potent cardiac effects than its natural analog ghrelin, it can be a potential alternative to ghrelin as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

Hyaluronic Acid

Hyaluronic acid is a natural substance found in the fluids in the eyes and joints. It acts as a cushion and lubricant in the joints and other tissues.

Different forms of hyaluronic acid are used for cosmetic purposes. Hyaluronic acid might also affect the way the body responds to injury and help to decrease swelling.

Hyaluronic acid injections are US FDA-approved for several conditions, including cataracts, osteoarthritis, and as an injectable gel filler (Juvedérm) for facial wrinkles. People also commonly take hyaluronic acid by mouth and apply it to the skin for UTIs, acid reflux, dry eyes, wound healing, aging skin, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support most of these other uses.

Hyaluronic acid is likely safe when used appropriately. Allergic reactions might occur but are rare. Hyaluronic acid injections are US FDA-approved for several conditions. These products must be given by a healthcare provider.

Hyaluronic acid is also available in many different types of topical products, including creams, gels, mouthwashes, and eye drops. In supplements, there isn't enough reliable information to know what an appropriate dose of hyaluronic acid might be. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe, and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult a healthcare professional before using.


Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets encoded in humans by the INS gene. It is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body. It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of glucose from the blood into liver, fat and skeletal muscle cells. In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats (triglycerides) via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, into both.

Beta cells are sensitive to blood sugar levels so that they secrete insulin into the blood in response to high level of glucose and inhibit secretion of insulin when glucose levels are low. Insulin enhances glucose uptake and metabolism in the cells, thereby reducing blood sugar level. Their neighboring alpha cells, by taking their cues from the beta cells, secrete glucagon into the blood in the opposite manner: increased secretion when blood glucose is low and decreased secretion when glucose concentrations are high. Glucagon increases blood glucose level by stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in the liver. The secretion of insulin and glucagon into the blood in response to the blood glucose concentration is the primary mechanism of glucose homeostasis.

Insulin was the first peptide hormone discovered. Frederick Banting and Charles Herbert Best, working in the laboratory of J. J. R. Macleod at the University of Toronto, were the first to isolate insulin from dog pancreas in 1921.


Ipamorelin is a pentapeptide and a ghrelin mimetic with growth hormone releasing activity. Ipamorelin imitates ghrelin and ties to the ghrelin receptor in the brain, thus selectively stimulating the release of growth hormone from the pituitary gland.

Growth hormones are frequently released and more abundant in children. When humans begin to age, the production of growth hormones decelerates and lessens gradually over time. The use of Ipamorelin can encourage these growth hormones to be created and released regularly.

Ipamorelin is used to help increase growth hormone production, which can assist in the reduction of body fat, enhancement of lean muscle mass, improvement of sleep, and increase of energy and over all wellness. Ipamorelin is mostly used for collagen production, wrinkle reduction, acceleration of healing and recovery, and enhancement of mood and sleep; therefore, being a peptide that is sought after for its anti-aging benefits.

Ipamorelin has been used by athletes as a performance enhancing drug.


IGF-1 LR3 is a polypeptide long-chain amino acid peptide hormone. Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1 Long-Arginine 3), an 83 amino acid analog of IGF-1, is a highly anabolic hormone released primarily in the liver with the stimulus of growth hormone (HGH). IGF-1 LR3 plays an important role in cell proliferation, cell-to-cell communication and cell division.

IGF-1 LR3 is a derivative of IGF-1. Due to its structural adjustment, IGF-1 LR3 has a much longer half-life and results may persist in the bloodstream for up to 120 times longer.

IGF-1 LR3 is primarily used to increase the biological activity of IGF. When IGF-1 LR3 is mobile in the body, it functions differently in individual types of tissues. For example, in muscle tissue, it forces the muscle to be more sensitive to insulin's effects, such as the decrease of fat storage.

IGF-1 LR3 is recommended to patients with the following conditions: hormone deficiency in children that results in short stature, adult growth deficiency, short bowel syndrome, short stature due to Turner Syndrome, adult deficiency associated with pituitary tumors or treatment of these tumors and muscle-wasting disease related to HIV/AIDS.

Some possible side effects of IGF-1 LR3 may include the following: muscle and joint pain, nausea, headaches, hypoglycemia (usually when IGF-1 LR3 is administered in continuous high doses) and may be associated with increased risk of developing some cancers.


Laminins are glycoproteins with both common and specific functions. One common and most important function of laminins is to interact with receptors anchored in the plasma membrane of cells adjacent to basement membranes. In doing so laminins regulate multiple cellular activities and signaling pathways.

The laminin family of glycoproteins is an integral part of the structural scaffolding in almost every tissue of an organism. They are secreted and incorporated into cell-associated extracellular matrices. Laminin is vital for the maintenance and survival of tissues. Defective laminins can cause muscles to form improperly, leading to a form of muscular dystrophy, lethal skin blistering disease (junctional epidermolysis bullosa) and defects of the kidney filter (nephrotic syndrome).

Laminin-111 is a major substrate along which nerve axons will grow, both in vivo and in vitro. For example, it lays down a path that developing retinal ganglion cells follow on their way from the retina to the tectum. It is also often used as a substrate in cell culture experiments. The presence of laminin-1 can influences how the growth cone responds to other cues. For example, growth cones are repelled by netrin when grown on laminin-111 but are attracted to netrin when grown on fibronectin. [citation needed] This effect of laminin-111 probably occurs through a lowering of intracellular cyclic AMP.


Leptin is a hormone. Leptin sends a signal to your brain that helps you feel full and less interested in food. You may hear it called a satiety hormone. (Satiety means hunger feels satisfied). It also plays a role in how your body turns fat into energy.

Leptin’s main function is to help regulate the long-term balance between your body’s food intake and energy use (expenditure). Leptin helps inhibit (prevent) hunger and regulate energy balance so that your body doesn’t trigger a hunger response when it doesn’t need energy (calories).

Leptin mainly acts on your brainstem and hypothalamus to regulate hunger and energy balance, though you have leptin receptors in other areas of your body. Leptin doesn’t affect your hunger levels and food intake from meal to meal but rather acts to alter food intake and control energy expenditure over a longer period of time to help maintain your normal weight.

Leptin has a more profound effect when you lose weight. As your body fat (adipose tissue) decreases, your leptin levels decrease, which signals your body to think that it’s starving. This stimulates intense hunger and appetite and can lead to increased food consumption.

Luteinizing Hormone (Lh)

Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a chemical in your body that triggers important processes in your reproductive system. LH spurs ovulation and helps with the hormone production needed to support pregnancy. Your provider may order a test to check your LH levels if you have fertility issues or irregular menstruation.

Luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates processes in your body that are important for sexual health, development and reproduction. A tiny structure in your brain called the pituitary gland secretes LH. In turn, LH causes changes in your sex organs (your ovaries or testes) that allow your reproductive system to function correctly.

Your pituitary gland secretes two important hormones that work together to regulate processes in your reproductive system: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These hormones are chemical messengers that signal your sex organs (ovaries or testes) to start processes needed to support your reproductive health.

Think of LH as a chemical agitator that spurs your reproductive system to action.

Your sex organs produce either steroids or hormones (progesterone, testosterone) in response to LH.

  • In the pituitary of people designated female at birth (DFAB), LH is released only in the second part of the menstrual cycle. That is, after an initial surge causes the release of an egg (ovulation), LH is released at a constant pace for two weeks. This stimulates ovarian progesterone production.
  • In the pituitary of people designated male at birth (DMAB), LH is released at a constant pace over time and testosterone is produced at a constant level, as well.


Macimorelin (INN) is a drug that was developed by Æterna Zentaris for use in the diagnosis of adult growth hormone deficiency. Macimorelin acetate, the salt formulation, is a synthetic growth hormone secretagogue receptor agonist. It is a growth hormone secretagogue receptor (ghrelin receptor) agonist causing release of growth hormone from the pituitary gland.

How is macimorelin given?

At least 1 week before your GH test, stop using any growth hormone medication. You must be fasting when you take macimorelin. Do not eat or drink anything but water for at least 8 hours before your GH test. Macimorelin is given as a single dose. A healthcare provider will mix macimorelin into a drink that you will consume within 30 seconds. After you drink macimorelin, your blood will be drawn 30 minutes, 45 minutes, 60 minutes, and 90 minutes later. This will help your doctor determine more about your condition.


Melittin is the main component (40–60% of the dry weight) and the major pain producing substance of honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom. Melittin is a basic peptide consisting of 26 amino acids.

To treat DM, several antidiabetic drugs are used. However, these drugs are not without side effects and pose an economic burden to the patient. Therefore, scientists have turned to natural remedies, including honey and bee products, such as bee venom (BV). BV is a complex mixture of proteins, peptides, and low molecular components secreted by the worker and the queen bees. The main active constituent of BV (apitoxin) is melittin, which has a relatively low toxicity. It exerts important effects on cells, such as hemolysis, membrane depolarization and muscle contraction, cytotoxicity, and phospholipase C and arachidonic acid following phospholipase A2 activation.

BV proteins, mainly melittin, are also widely used in the treatment of arthritis, frozen shoulder, diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system (CNS, PNS), skin diseases, heart and blood system related diseases, cancer, ulcer, colitis, and neuritis. Recent studies also confirmed that melittin can significantly reduce blood glucose via insulin secretion and glucose uptake in animal models. These studies also reported that melittin has significant lipid regulating activities by activating phospholipase A2. Thus, melittin could be a potential therapeutic agent against DM.

Melittin is the main compound in bee venom, accounting for the potential lethality of a bee sting, which causes an anaphylactic reaction in some people. At the sites of multiple stings, localized pain, swelling, and skin redness occur, and if bees are swallowed, life-threatening swelling of the throat and respiratory passages may develop

Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (Msh)

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone is a collective name for a group of peptide hormones produced by the skin, pituitary gland and hypothalamus. In response to ultraviolet (UV) radiation its production by the skin and pituitary is enhanced, and this plays a key role in producing colored pigmentation found in the skin, hair and eyes. It does this by inducing specialized skin cells called melanocytes to produce a pigment called melanin; melanin protects cells from DNA damage, which can lead to skin cancer (melanoma).

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone secretion from the pituitary is increased by exposure to UV light. Unlike most hormones, melanocyte-stimulating hormone release is not thought to be controlled by a direct feedback mechanism.

A deficiency in melanocyte-stimulating hormone results in a lack of skin pigmentation and subsequent loss of natural protection from UV rays of the sun. In secondary adrenal insufficiency, damage to the pituitary gland prevents release of adrenocorticotropic hormone and melanocyte-stimulating hormone and there is reduced pigmentation of the skin. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone deficiency can cause increased inflammation, pain, and sleeping problems, as well as a reduction in the levels of anti-diuretic hormone, which causes thirst and frequent urination. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone deficiency may also result in increased food intake and obesity.


MOTS‐c is a peptide of 16 amino acids expressed by a mitochondrial gene. Research provides evidence that mitochondria play a key role in signaling and in energy production.

MOTS-c regulates metabolic functions throughout the body, including turning glucose into usable energy. Preliminary studies show evidence for improved control over blood sugar levels for those with type 2 diabetes and obesity.

Research also shows that skeletal muscle is the major target tissue of MOTS‐c. The skeletal muscle enhances insulin sensitivity and increases glucose uptake in myocytes (muscle cells) by activating the AMPK pathway and at the same time without increasing insulin. It is fair to call MOTS‐c an exercise‐mimetic, meaning it imitates exercise on the body. Exercise also increases muscle glucose uptake without stimulating insulin.

We know that mitochondria are the main cellular sites devoted to ATP (energy) production and fatty acid oxidation. The Mitochondrial-Derived Peptide MOTS-c promotes metabolic homeostasis and reduces obesity and insulin resistance. Mitochondria also play a crucial role in determining metabolic flexibility.


Oritavancin is a new-generation lipoglycopeptide indicated for the treatment of adults with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) caused by susceptible organisms, including Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible [MSSA] and methicillin-resistant [MRSA] strains), certain Streptococcus species, and Enterococcus faecalis. It is a bactericidal agent that exhibits concentration-dependent activity. Trials to evaluate the use of oritavancin for other complicated infections, such as bacteremia and osteomyelitis, are currently being conducted.


Oxytocin is produced in the hypothalamus and is secreted into the bloodstream by the posterior pituitary gland. Secretion depends on the electrical activity of neurons in the hypothalamus, and it is released into the blood when these cells are excited.

The two main actions of oxytocin in the body are contraction of the womb (uterus) during childbirth and lactation. Oxytocin stimulates the uterine muscles to contract and also increases production of prostaglandins, which increases the contractions further. Manufactured oxytocin is sometimes given to induce labor if it has not started naturally, or it can be used to strengthen contractions to aid childbirth. In addition, manufactured oxytocin is often given to speed up delivery of the placenta and reduce the risk of heavy bleeding by contracting the uterus. During breastfeeding, oxytocin promotes the movement of milk through the ducts in the breast, allowing it to be excreted by the nipple. Oxytocin is also present in men, playing a role in sperm transport and production of testosterone by the testes.

In the brain, oxytocin acts as a chemical messenger and has an important role in many human behaviors.

Parathyroid hormone (Pth)

Parathyroid hormone is secreted from four parathyroid glands, which are small glands in the neck, located behind the thyroid gland. Parathyroid hormone regulates calcium levels in the blood, largely by increasing the levels when they are too low. It does this through its actions on the kidneys, bones and intestine:

Bones: Parathyroid hormone stimulates the release of calcium from large calcium stores in the bones into the bloodstream. This increases bone destruction and decreases the formation of new bone.

Kidneys: Parathyroid hormone reduces loss of calcium in urine. Parathyroid hormone also stimulates the production of active vitamin D in the kidneys.

Intestine: Parathyroid hormone indirectly increases calcium absorption from food in the intestine, via its effects on vitamin D metabolism.

Parathyroid hormone is mainly controlled by the negative feedback of calcium levels in the blood to the parathyroid glands. Low calcium levels in the blood stimulate parathyroid hormone secretion, whereas high calcium levels in the blood prevent the release of parathyroid hormone.

A primary problem in the parathyroid glands, producing too much parathyroid hormone causes raised calcium levels in the blood (hypercalcaemia) and this is referred to as primary hyperparathyroidism. Too little parathyroid hormone or hypoparathyroidism, is a rare medical condition. It can result in low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcaemia).

Normal parathyroid hormone levels:

In general, the normal range for the parathyroid hormone blood test known as “PTH, intact” is 15 to 65 picograms per milliliter (pg/mL). A picogram is one-trillionth of a gram.

If you need to get a parathyroid hormone level test, your healthcare provider will interpret your results and let you know if you need to get further testing.


Prolactin is a hormone named originally after its function to promote milk production (lactation) in mammals in response to the suckling of young after birth. It has since been shown to have more than 300 functions in the body. These can be divided into a number of areas: reproductive, metabolic, regulation of fluids (osmoregulation), regulation of the immune system (immunoregulation) and behavioural functions.

In humans, prolactin is produced both in the front portion of the pituitary gland (anterior pituitary gland) and in a range of sites elsewhere in the body. Lactotroph cells in the pituitary gland produce prolactin, where it is stored and then released into the bloodstream. Human prolactin is also produced in the uterus, immune cells, brain, breasts, prostate, skin and adipose tissue.

One of the main regulators of the production of prolactin from the pituitary gland is the hormone called dopamine, which is produced by the hypothalamus, the part of the brain directly above the pituitary gland. Dopamine restrains prolactin production, so the more dopamine there is, the less prolactin is released. Prolactin itself enhances the secretion of dopamine, so this creates a negative feedback loop.

If prolactin levels are higher than normal, it often means there is a type of tumor of the pituitary gland, known as a prolactinoma. This tumor makes the gland produce too much prolactin. Excess prolactin can cause the production of breast milk in men and in women who are not pregnant or breastfeeding. In women, too much prolactin can also cause menstrual problems and infertility (the inability to get pregnant). In men, it can lead to lower sex drive and erectile dysfunction (ED). Also known as impotence, ED is the inability to get or maintain an erection.

The normal values for prolactin are: Men: less than 20 ng/mL (425 µg/L) Nonpregnant women: less than 25 ng/mL (25 µg/L)

A prolactin levels test is most often used to:

  • Diagnose a prolactinoma (a type of tumor of the pituitary gland)
  • Help find the cause of a woman's menstrual irregularities and/or infertility
  • Help find the cause of a man's low sex drive and/or erectile dysfunction


Renin is an enzyme made by special cells in your kidneys. It’s part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system that is a chain reaction designed to regulate your blood pressure. Specifically, renin controls the production of aldosterone, a hormone made by your adrenal glands.

Blood pressure regulation is the main function of renin. It works together with angiotensin and aldosterone to manage the levels of sodium and potassium in your body.

Here’s how the process works:

  • Renin converts angiotensinogen (a precursor of angiotensin that’s produced by your liver) to angiotensin I. (Angiotensin is a hormone that narrows your blood vessels.)
  • Angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II.
  • Angiotensin II narrows your blood vessels and stimulates the release of aldosterone.
  • Aldosterone helps your kidneys retain water and salt, increasing the amount of water in your body. This increases your blood pressure.

Normal values:

Normal values range from 1.9 to 3.7 ng/ml/hour. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Note: ng/ml/hour = nanograms per milliliter per hour

Renin is most often measured as plasma renin activity (PRA). It measures how well renin generates angiotensin I (the precursor of angiotensin II). It can also be measured as direct renin. If your renin levels are abnormally high or low, your healthcare provider will design a treatment plan based on the underlying cause. For example, if you have high renin levels and high blood pressure, your provider may prescribe beta-blockers, clonidine or other medications to lower your blood pressure.


To properly grow and develop, your body needs human growth hormone (hGH). This is a peptide hormone produced in the tiny part of your brain called the pituitary gland. Although hGH plays its most crucial role during childhood and adolescence, it continues to maintain healthy tissues and organs throughout your life. Because of that, hGH levels that are lower or higher than typical can lead to health problems both in children and adults.

As often is the case with such complicated machines as our bodies, hGH does not act alone. A molecule called the growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) controls hGH by releasing it from the pituitary gland into the bloodstream. If your blood test indicates low levels of hGH, your doctor may recommend injections of a synthetic form of GHRH, called sermorelin.


Somatostatin is a hormone produced by many tissues in the body, principally in the nervous and digestive systems. It regulates a wide variety of physiological functions and inhibits the secretion of other hormones, the activity of the gastrointestinal tract and the rapid reproduction of normal and tumour cells. Somatostatin may also act as a neurotransmitter in the nervous system.

In the same way that somatostatin controls the production of several hormones, these hormones feedback to control the production of somatostatin. This is increased by raised levels of these other hormones and reduced by low levels. Somatostatin is also secreted by the pancreas in response to many factors related to food intake, such as high blood levels of glucose and amino acids.

Healthcare providers use a synthetic form of somatostatin to treat certain health conditions, including:

  • Certain gastrointestinal diseases.
  • Acromegaly (a rare condition in which your body produces too much growth hormone).
  • Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs).
  • Other endocrine conditions.

Excessive somatostatin levels in the bloodstream may be caused by a rare endocrine tumour that produces somatostatin, called a ‘somatostatinoma’. Since somatostatin regulates many physiological processes, too little somatostatin production would lead to a variety of problems, including too much secretion of growth hormone. However, there are very few reports of somatostatin deficiency.


Tabimorelin (INN) is a drug which acts as a potent, orally active agonist of the ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) and growth hormone secretagogue, mimicking the effects of the endogenous peptide agonist ghrelin as a stimulator of growth hormone (GH) release. It was one of the first GH secretagogues developed and is largely a modified polypeptide, but it is nevertheless orally active in vivo. Tabimorelin produced sustained increases in levels of GH and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), along with smaller transient increases in levels of other hormones such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and prolactin.

However actual clinical effects in adults with growth hormone deficiency were limited, with only the most severely GH-deficient patients showing significant benefit, and tabimorelin was also found to act as a CYP3A4 inhibitor which could cause it to have undesirable interactions with other drugs.


Teicoplanin is an antibiotic used in the prophylaxis and treatment of serious infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. It is a semisynthetic glycopeptide antibiotic with a spectrum of activity similar to vancomycin. Its mechanism of action is to inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis.

Oral teicoplanin has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of pseudomembranous colitis and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea, with comparable efficacy with vancomycin.

Teicoplanin is indicated in adults and in children from birth for the parenteral treatment of the following infections:

  • Complicated skin and soft tissue infections
  • Bone and joint infections
  • Hospital acquired pneumonia
  • Community acquired pneumonia
  • Complicated urinary tract infections
  • Infective endocarditis


Telaprevir (VX-950), marketed under the brand names Incivek and Incivo, is a pharmaceutical drug for the treatment of hepatitis C co-developed by Vertex Pharmaceuticals and Johnson & Johnson. It is a member of a class of antiviral drugs known as protease inhibitors. Specifically, telaprevir inhibits the hepatitis C viral enzyme NS3/4A serine protease. Telaprevir is only indicated for use against hepatitis C genotype 1 viral infections and has not been proven to be safe or effective when used for other genotypes of the virus. The standard therapy of pegylated interferon and ribavirin is less effective than telaprevir in those with genotype 1.


Telavancin (trade name Vibativ) is a bactericidal lipoglycopeptide for use in MRSA or other Gram-positive infections. Telavancin is a semi-synthetic derivative of vanocymycin that has bactericidal activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other gram-positive bacteria. MRSA is an important pathogen capable of causing hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and skin and subcutaneous tissue infections among others.

Like vancomycin, telavancin inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to the D-Ala-D-Ala terminus of the peptidoglycan in the growing cell wall. In addition, it disrupts bacterial membranes by depolarization.

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (Tsh)

Thyroid stimulating hormone is produced and released into the bloodstream by the pituitary gland. It controls production of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine, by the thyroid gland by binding to receptors located on cells in the thyroid gland. Thyroxine and triiodothyronine are essential to maintaining the body’s metabolic rate, heart and digestive functions, muscle control, brain development and maintenance of bones.

A simple blood test can measure thyroid stimulating hormone in the circulation. If a person has too much, this may indicate that their thyroid gland is not making enough thyroid hormone, that is, they have an underactive thyroid gland or hypothyroidism. People with an underactive thyroid often feel lethargic, experience weight gain, and feel the cold. If a person has too little thyroid stimulating hormone, it is most likely that their thyroid gland is making too much thyroid hormone, that is, they have an overactive thyroid or hyperthyroidism, which is suppressing the thyroid stimulating hormone. People with an overactive thyroid have the opposite symptoms to those with hypothyroidism, i.e. they lose weight (despite increasing the amount they eat), feel too hot and can experience palpitations or anxiety.

Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (Trh)

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone is one of the smallest hormones in the body, consisting of a miniature chain of just three amino acid building blocks. It is made by a cluster of nerve cells in the hypothalamus, an area at the base of the brain just above the pituitary gland. This nerve cell cluster is known as the paraventricular nucleus. The nerve fibres that come out of it carry the thyrotropin-releasing hormone and release it into the blood surrounding the pituitary gland, where it has its most important action. This is to regulate the formation and secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone in the pituitary gland, which in turn regulates the production of thyroid hormones in the thyroid gland. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone is very short-lived, lasting for a matter of two minutes and travelling less than an inch in the bloodstream to the pituitary gland before it is broken down.

TRH is used clinically by intravenous injection (brand name Relefact TRH) to test the response of the anterior pituitary gland; this procedure is known as a TRH test. This is done as diagnostic test of thyroid disorders such as secondary hypothyroidism and in acromegaly. TRH has anti-depressant and anti-suicidal properties. TRH has been shown in mice to be an anti-aging agent with a broad spectrum of activities that, because of their actions, suggest that TRH has a fundamental role in the regulation of metabolic and hormonal functions

If a person has too little thyrotropin-releasing hormone, they will develop thyroid underactivity (hypothyroidism). This is a rare condition, usually due to an injury or tumor which destroys this area of the hypothalamus. This situation is referred to as secondary or central hypothyroidism.

Side effects after intravenous TRH administration are minimal. Nausea, flushing, urinary urgency, and mild rise in blood pressure have been reported. After intrathecal administration, shaking, sweating, shivering, restlessness, and mild rise in blood pressure were observed.

Thrombospondin I (Thbs1)

Thrombospondin 1, abbreviated as THBS1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the THBS1 gene. Thrombospondin 1 is a subunit of a disulfide-linked homotrimeric protein. This protein is an adhesive glycoprotein that mediates cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix interactions. This protein can bind to fibrinogen, fibronectin, laminin, collagen types V and VII and integrins alpha-V/beta-1. This protein has been shown to play roles in platelet aggregation, angiogenesis, and tumorigenesis.

TSP1 exerts a wide range of functions as its domains can bind to receptors and specific proteins anchored or secreted in the extracellular matrix. TSP1 is an antiangiogenic protein that modulates cell migration and adhesion; it controls the deposition of collagen in the stroma and modulates immunity


Vancomycin is an antibiotic used to treat infections. This form of vancomycin is used to treat a certain intestinal condition (colitis) caused by bacteria. This condition causes diarrhea and stomach/abdominal discomfort or pain. When vancomycin is taken by mouth, it stays in the intestines to stop the growth of certain bacteria that cause these symptoms.This antibiotic treats only bacterial infection in the intestines. It will not work for bacterial infections in any other part of the body or for viral infections (such as common cold, flu). Using any antibiotic when it is not needed can cause it to not work for future infections.


Vasopressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a nonapeptide synthesized in the hypothalamus. Science has known it to play essential roles in the control of the body’s osmotic balance, blood pressure regulation, sodium homeostasis, and kidney functioning. Given its vital role in multiple functions, it is no surprise that ADH is of great clinical significance. ADH primarily affects the ability of the kidney to reabsorb water; when present, ADH induces expression of water transport proteins in the late distal tubule and collecting duct to increase water reabsorption. Several disease states arise when the body loses control of ADH secretion or responds to its presence.

ADH is an important hormone that is responsible for water, osmolar, and blood pressure homeostasis. Its function is vital in times of thirst, hemorrhage, the third spacing of fluid, and other scenarios where there is the diminution of effective arterial blood flow. Its efforts serve to maintain volume status as well as blood pressure to continue adequate tissue perfusion.

The laboratory values commonly used to diagnose conditions associated with ADH abnormalities include serum osmolality, urine osmolality, urine electrolytes, thyroid function tests, cortisol levels, liver function tests, and serum uric acid.

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (Vip)

Vasoactive intestinal peptide, also known as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide or VIP, is a peptide hormone that is vasoactive in the intestine. VIP is produced in many tissues of vertebrates including the gut, pancreas, and suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus in the brain. VIP stimulates contractility in the heart, causes vasodilation, increases glycogenolysis, lowers arterial blood pressure and relaxes the smooth muscle of trachea, stomach and gallbladder.

In the digestive system, VIP seems to induce smooth muscle relaxation (lower esophageal sphincter, stomach, and gallbladder), stimulate secretion of water into pancreatic juice and bile, and cause inhibition of gastric acid secretion and absorption from the intestinal lumen. Its role in the intestine is to greatly stimulate secretion of water and electrolytes, as well as relaxation of enteric smooth muscle, dilating peripheral blood vessels, stimulating pancreatic bicarbonate secretion, and inhibiting gastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion. These effects work together to increase motility.


5-amino-1MQ is a small molecule drug that functions to block the activity of an enzyme called nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT). NNMT plays a significant role in metabolism and energy and is predominantly active in fat tissue.

5-amino-1MQ blocks an enzyme that plays a role in energy utilization. It functions to actively increase basal metabolic rate (BMR). This increase in BMR is often accompanied by an increase in appetite. For 5-amino-1MQ to work most effectively for fat loss, patients taking the drug should continue to operate at a caloric deficit, which means you consume fewer calories than you burn. Furthermore, patients can expect to see improved physical performance approx. two weeks after starting the medication.